Picture this for a minute.
The year is 2007. Cash is the king. All transactions are done in cash, and for electronic transfer of cash, only banks and money remitting companies like Western Union, Money Gram, and Dahabshiil handle the movement of money within and out of the country.
But Safaricom has a novel idea: transfer money using mobile phones, tapping into their vast network of subscribers. It is a eureka moment. However, it is a highly disruptive idea that needs bureaucratic approval. The common response of any bureaucracy to a good idea is NO. Especially if it is disruptive and could upset the status quo. All good ideas take off largely because of serendipity: having the right people in the right place.
There is a consensus across the board that Prof. Njuguna Ndung’u helped a great deal in the launch and take off of MPESA to be the juggernaut it is today. He was the Central Bank Governor at the time and had he been a Luddite, it would be a different story. He said YES, and the rest is history. In 2006, only 26 percent of Kenyans had access to financial services. Today, almost 84 percent have access to financial services.
Few individuals get to serve three different regimes at the highest possible capacity in a country where political appointments are super competitive. However, Professor Prof. Njuguna Ndung’u, CBS has served under the Kibaki regime and the Uhuru Kenyatta regime and is presently the Cabinet Secretary at the National Treasury and Economic Planning under the William Ruto regime.
Born in Kandara, Murang’a county, Kenya, in 1960, Professor Ndung’u is a distinguished economist who has made indelible marks in Kenya’s financial sector. Starting in the classroom as an associate professor, he would then chart his way to the highest echelons of economic policy-making. His focus has been economic development and financial inclusion.
Professor Ndung’u attended the University of Nairobi, where he earned both a Bachelor’s and a Master’s of Arts in Economics. He would then proceed to the University of Gothenburg in Sweden, where he obtained his Doctor of Philosophy in Economics, honing his knowledge and skills that he would later utilize in transforming Kenya’s economic landscape.
Ndung’u’s career took flight in academia as an Associate Professor of Economics at the University of Nairobi. Beyond the classroom, he made inroads into economic research and policy-making, serving in high-profile roles that allowed him to shape domestic and international economic policies.
In March 2007, Ndung’u was entrusted with the responsibility of serving as the eighth Governor of the Central Bank of Kenya. He held this position for two four-year terms until March 2015, demonstrating a visionary leadership that radically transformed the financial sector. During his tenure, he championed the evolution of mobile banking in Kenya, significantly extending financial inclusion across the country.
His influence, however, was not confined within Kenyan borders. He held international roles at the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), the Kenya Institute of Public Policy Research and Analysis (KIPPRA), and the Alliance for Financial Inclusion (AFI). As a Senior Advisor for the UNCDF-based Better Than Cash Alliance and a member of the Task Force on Climate, Development, and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) Institute for Capacity Building in Washington D.C.,USA
In October 2022, his exceptional track record led to his appointment as Kenya’s Minister of Finance in President William Samoei Ruto’s cabinet. This role has further allowed him to significantly shape Kenya’s economic trajectory.
As an economic stalwart, Ndung’u has held several other pivotal positions. He was the Executive Director of the African Economic Research Consortium (AERC), a member of the Brookings Africa Growth Initiative (AGI) Distinguished Advisory Group, and part of the Global Advisory Council of the World Economic Forum. All these roles have amplified Ndung’u’s influence in economic policy, research, and advisory roles, both in Kenya and internationally.
Now, scroll back up and read the title once again.
You read Silent Architect somewhere. That’s not just for the flare.
Among the 1.13+ billion websites on the internet lies one that holds Njuguna Ndung’u’s priceless insights and perceptions in the field of economics. This treasure is buried in Brookings.
In as much as we have marked the X on the treasure map, this is Mr. Ndung’u’s story, and it helps to mention some of his fundamental economic insights:
1. Regulatory environment and technological innovation in Africa.
Back in January 2017, Mr. Ndung’u began by contributing to Foresight Africa, where he emphasized the importance of a regulatory environment that supports innovation while also managing risks. Countries that successfully embrace digital financial inclusion can provide guidelines for shaping market outcomes and raising their financial inclusion profiles. Ndung’u suggested that regulators in Africa need to understand the potential of emerging innovative products to the economy as a whole and provide risk mitigation processes upfront to avoid stifling growth. The lessons learned from the success of M-Pesa and other similar products could serve as a guide for African countries to foster innovation while maintaining financial stability.
2. New frontiers in Africa’s digital potential
In January 2018, Prof. Ndung’u wrote about how the benefits of digitization are extensive and appealing and can help in retail payment systems, sustainable business models, financial inclusion, and revenue administration. However, for African economies to benefit from digitization, investing in the necessary infrastructure, embracing digitization, and introducing appropriate regulatory technology is essential. The successful digitization experiences of Kenya offer valuable lessons for Africa’s digitization potential beyond 2018. African economies can unlock the vast potential of digitization by developing the necessary payment infrastructure, joining global partnerships, and advocating for electronic retail payment migration. With the right policies and investments, digitization can be a powerful tool to drive inclusive growth, sustainable poverty reduction, and achieve the Sustainable Development Goals in Africa.
3. Next steps for the digital revolution in Africa
Prof. Ndung’u has highlighted the significant role that digitization has played in accelerating the provision of financial services, improving financial inclusion, and reducing poverty in developing, frontier, and emerging economies. He notes that digitization has also had a positive impact on employment creation, with sustainable business models being developed across various sectors of the economy. While his paper provides only tentative conclusions on the next steps for the digital revolution to provide strong avenues for growth and job creation in Kenya and similar countries in Africa adopting and pushing the digitization frontier, digitization will continue to have a greater impact on the economy through the avenues of inclusive finance, growth, and employment in the coming years.
4. Could taxation of mobile banking in Africa stall financial inclusion?
In this paper, Prof. Ndung’u brought to light the relationship between taxes and mobile banking. He mentioned that while raising taxes is necessary for governments to finance economic development, excessive taxation on mobile phone-based transactions could potentially distort the market and reverse the gains made in financial inclusion. African countries wishing to tax mobile transactions should undertake careful cost-benefit analyses in the short and long term to avoid negative consequences. Poorly designed tax policy could not only have bad outcomes for tax revenues but also introduce market distortions that can drive consumption behaviour on undesired paths. Therefore, policymakers must evaluate the negatives of such actions and ensure that tax policies are well-designed and optimal for the economy’s long-term growth and development.
The above are just some of the insights from the Silent Architecture. Continuing would mean this article turning into a novella; we don’t think our chief editor would be happy about that. Once again, you can check out Mr. Ndung’u’s insights on economies.
Despite his high profile, little is known about his family besides that he is a father of three children. He maintains a low profile.
His journey, dedication, and hard work have amassed him a net worth of approximately Sh950 million.
Prof. Njuguna Ndung’u, CBS life story is an emblem of dedication, vision, and relentless pursuit of economic transformation. His contributions to Kenya’s financial sector, his championing of financial inclusion, and his influence on global economic policies serve as an inspiration for aspiring economists and policymakers. His life reaffirms that with passion and dedication, one can indeed make a significant impact on society and beyond.
As Kenya goes through a challenging economic period, marked by significant inflation, the Kenyan shilling tanking rapidly, and high unemployment rates, many Kenyans hope that the don will pull some rabbit out of his hat and turn things around, even though time is running out.